“VISION of BODY / 身体の夢”
Tetsuro Fukuhara

– Body is a daily concern for 7,5 billion people worldwide. Everyone dreams “VISION of BODY”


Masato Sasaki
(Professor of The University of Tokyo, Faculty of Education in Tokyo, Japan)

“Dance is an exploration of expressions connecting the universe and the ground. Tatsumi Hijikata finished the first step, Tetsuro Fukuhara is doing the second step.”

Osamu Sakura
(Professor of The University of Tokyo, Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies  in Tokyo, Japan)

“Tetsuro Fukuhara’s thought that emphasis on physicality is quite agreeable. Living creatures will not be established unless we think it as a set with the environment. Also, human beings.”


[Chapter 1]   “A Story constituted on the Million Hypotheses”
[Chapter 2]   “What is Butoh?”
[Chapter 3]    “What is Space Dance?”
[Chapter 4]   “New Thought”
[Chapter 5]   “Design for Body of Future”
[Chapter 6]   “New Role of Art”

“Words from Butoh-Space Dance Lesson”


[Chapter 1]
“A Story constituted on the Million Hypotheses”

Follow the distant memories of the past and take a first step towards the future as its return.

1 Art and Science, Two Spirits


Theoretical physicist Lisa Randall, who runs at the forefront of modern science, said on her book that her idea of “Surplus Dimension” is not based on scientific positive evidence, but “her own belief” as well as religions and artists. She confessed it is a just intuition that come to her mind.

        “Suddenly I noticed my true feelings. I believe that Surplus Dimension must exist in some form. No way that I will be its way.”(“Warped Passages” by Lisa Randall 2005)

In other words, she is also based on something other than science for her scientific idea, and in her mind two spirits are living, one sprit come from Religion or Art and other spirit come from Science. From now our era will be an era that Religion, Art, and Science come closer each other again like the former Renaissance. In that meaning the era of science established by taking distance from Religion and Art will end. Religion and Art can still lead Science. Science can also update Religion and Art by adding new content to Religion and Art once denied. What I am going for in this book is renewal of Science, and renewal of Religion and Art.


On this book a theme that some one view belongs to a “Hypotheses” or belongs a “True” will be not important basically. Because, we know almost “Scientific Facts” are remaining in the position of “Hypotheses”. Most important thing is that I can feel to one view as “Like True” for my feeling, for my antenna or not. So, even if it is a “Hypotheses”, or if it is a science fiction, if it will be interesting and important for my book, I take a policy to adopt it.


As a Butoh-Space Dance Choreographer long year, I have bringing up these following ideas;

        Our human’s body and brain keep all memories including the memories of animal’s age. We can get back these memories through our body movements. Humans are dreaming beings, and our dreams are flowing towards the Surplus Dimension and towards the Future.

I have one feeling which supports my ideas as “Surplus Dimension exists very near our world with a different layer, and the lost animals, the aliens, and the dead people live there. And always they are sending some messages to us”. This feeling is a true for me. Or, it is a true I hope Surplus Dimension exists with such a condition. So, if today’s Science can’t prove my feeling I don’t need to negate it. Because I know today’s Science itself is a transitional existence and there’s no doubt that it have a destiny always to be renewed.


My “Story” just might be a “Story” constructed by “Hypotheses” mostly which exists in the area of reasoning. But, it is my “Reminded Matter” and important “Story” which really touch my heart. So, even such a “Story”, if it will work to solve several problems in the world and if it will be useful for people to get a good life, it will be a valuable trialke.

2 A Story


Assuming these discussions I will start to tell my “A Story constituted on  the Million Hypotheses” as follows;

        In a very far-gone age, we have one hypothesis that “Strong Fishes” had pursed “Weak Fishes” like “Ichthyostega” to eat, then “Weak Fishes” run away to the river from the sea. And during the very long time when “Weak Fishes” was trying to keep their positions in the river keeping by their pectorals into the gravel of the bottom of a river, their pectorals could change as the feet with a bone. Then, by chance “Weak Fishes” could invent the pulmonary respiration, and at last they could advance to the ground, finally they could be an “Amphibia”.

If these hypotheses are right, “Amphibia” were bone from the river, moreover from “Weak Fishes”. I wonder such “Amphibia” could keep the memory about “Ichthyostega” in their brain and in their behaviors? And, if “Amphibia” keeps its memory I wonder it is a memory with a happiness? In other words, this accident that they was born as “Amphibia” from “Weak Fishes” was happy or not? They were proud of its roots? Or, its memory was filled with a sadness?


Why I want to ask these questions? Because “Amphibian” depend on this history could grow up at the various environments on the ground and they could evolve into many kind of quadruped animals. Then, one part of quadruped animals by a reason for getting the foods, or by other reason, they were driven by “Necessity to Rise into the Air“. So they started to climb a tree and they changed their forefeet to the wings, finally they could transform into the “Birds.” Also, other part of quadruped animals by same reason for getting the foods, or by other reason, they were driven by “Necessity to Stand Up“. So they started to throw out their forefeet in the air and they could stand up on only their hind feet still imperfectly, finally they could transform into the “Apes.” And we know such the apes could use their forefeet as a “Hand” and they could organize the animal’s born as the weapon, then they could realize a first step of the instrument culture. So, these stories are true, or not?


And, at last, about our humans, one part of the apes, or one ethnic group near the apes, they started to feel their bipedalism was not enough for their life, and by a reason for feeling something lack, or by other motive, they could get a success to stand up only by hind feet perfectly evolved by two new muscles on the waists which other apes didn’t have it. Then, they could raise their bipedalism as a perfect activity and get a great success to point up their character as “First Human Race”.


 Like that, our humans with a perfect bipedalism could enlarge a brain, could invent various tools using by “Hand” well, could create various artificial objects, could make a fire, could use language, could produce the foods, could develop a skill for the war, could increase the “Family” killing by the enemy, could develop a communication, and could develop the artificial and high cultural world which we couldn’t find it in the ape’s world. Then, little by little, they could dominate on the grand as “Human Race”. In these process, did our human experienced several doubts and worries, and they were visited with several abstruse desires and despairs? Can we find people in our world even now who can express it as their memories about the “Worries” in the early stage of our humans, and about “Joy of Life” they could birth with these characters, or its “Sadness”?


 And, moreover I will continue to tell my story. What is amazing is that like Pakicetus and Ambulocetus, other one part of quadruped animals, what kind of thinking they had in that time I don’t know, but they made choice to return back to the sea. Then, they were being the ancestors of the whales and the dolphins. So, I wonder about them, they could recognize “Something”, so they returned to the sea spontaneously? Or, they had a same reason with “Ichthyostega”, they came to be treated as nuisances, as “Weak Animals” from “Strong Animals” on the ground? They were exposed to the fears of the predation and the extinction, so they should returned to the sea helplessly as their only one way? Or, because they kept a strong nostalgia to the sea, so they couldn’t stand any more of their condition on the ground, then they returned to the sea? Or, more in simple, the food were running short in their habitat, so they thought the getting the food was more easy in the sea?


I think, maybe almost people will be interested in a “Mystery” of behaviors of Pakicetus and Ambulocetus. Why they selected the way to be back to a same existence like the fish again, since they could transfer to the animal from the fish with big efforts? Even if they felt the fears to exist on the ground, also they felt something uncomfortable condition, or depend on such a reason they felt the crisis will come soon, then they decided to return back to the sea? Also, why our today people love whales and dolphins specially? Why we conjecture that maybe whales and dolphins keep a high intelligence? Particularly why we feel strong affinities with dolphins, because they keep a peaceful face? Are we ashamed of our history of human’s evolution with a true feeling? For us the existence of human beings is “Pain”?


Why human beings love to dive into the sea in the same way we love to climb a mountain and look up to the heaven? Both Mountain and Sea has been the subjects of worship mixed with fear and admiration from the ancient times. Why we feel whales and dolphins will be our friends and why we feel “Restoration” in their existence? Or, our humans too, when our time come, we will be aware to our fate to advance to the universe or to return back to the sea in the same as Pakicetus and Ambulocetus unconsciously? So, in spite of ourselves, we could feel the affinities with them as a predecessor?


And the ancestor of our human too, although they could notice the crisis which will come in the future on the ground, but they insisted on selecting a way to be on the ground? Or, it is not “Now” but they think it as “Someday”? Or, with a reason they didn’t notice the crisis, so they continued its existence on the ground as today’s condition? From these points, I will expand my story on more large scale depend on my hypothesis as follows;

        Our humans, in a short time, will start to do “Same kind of Adventure” like Pakicetus and Ambulocetus.


Humans could get a course of a very characteristic evolution as human beings different from a monkey realized by a design named “Chair for the Sitting”. Then, they could develop a new culture. In my story I adopted a hypothesis that “Posture is a Womb for Creating Culture”. In this hypothesis each fish, amphibian, quadruped animal, bird, monkey, human have each cultures depend on each postures. So, the culture is not a monopoly of humans. In this meaning “Posture” is a very important keyword in my story.


 Humans could perfect the bipedalism well, so they could notice a special value of the sitting. And for supporting this behavior such a sitting humans could start to create “Chair for the Sitting”. Its awareness and its creation are estimated highly as “Design’s Behavior that developed Human’s Characteristic Evolution”. Indeed, not only humans but also monkey could sit on the rock, on the grass, on the tree, and on other every location. However, it is only human beings that bother to make the man-made article “Chair” and only human sit on it.


 What is the difference between when humans sit on an artificial object named “Chair” and on other natural objects? Of course it is not only the theme about the comfortable sitting. Frankly speaking, humans could get an ability of “Looking Objectively”. In short, through the sitting on “Chair”, they could expand the body to the world, and at its point they could meet “Nature” again. Then, humans could start to look “Nature” and “Earth” including the body objectively.

This ability of “Looking Objectively” generated the definite difference between our humans and the monkey and other animal at my “A Story constituted on the Million Hypotheses”. In the end, by this ability, only humans could start to look our existence on the ground with a “View from Outside”. Its first fruits of this view were an invention “God” and an occurrence of “Religion”.

        Humans, through this ability of “Looking Objectively” could start to live into the universe as a spirit at the same time humans existed on the earth, and humans start to look same person who lived on the earth. Humans has been getting a new “Mind” different from the monkey and other animals.


Atsushi Iriki, Japanese brain scientist who works at Brain Science Institute of Physical and Chemical Research Center in Tokyo Japan, suggested a very unique hypothesis about the occurrence of “Mind” like follows;

        “When the ancestor of humans started to hand the outward object to move it as an extension of their body, and when they could use it as a tool, something happened, it underwent a radical change. In that time, the body also changed to be an outward object at the same time a tool changed to be one part of the body. Then, the body was symbolized in the brain as a new organization. So, like that, when the body was separated as the object, we should imagine a new core as the independent position to move the body into the cranial nerve of the brain. I foresee that the name of its virtual core will be a “Mind” as a space with a will and with a feeling”.

I think his hypothesis is a great and a wonderful discussion. In short, he said that our brain didn’t need to develop a brain’s ability and didn’t need to get a human’s “Mind” to move the body as the subject, but our brain needed it when humans started to move the body as the object.


Humans who has come to sit on the artificial object named “Chair” could belong to the outside of the earth with a different “Mind” from other animals at the same time they belong to the earth. They didn’t keep the unity with the nature, they had eyes to see themselves apart from the nature. Why humans, by chance, suddenly feel the loneliness or they are overcome with the strong nostalgia? Because, it is a reason they took on the separation from the nature. A person who keeps the unity with the nature he don’t need this kind of “Return” to the nature.

Humans don’t feel the unnaturalness for thinking about the universe, because their “Alter Ego” exists into the universe. In other words, humans meet “Alter Ego” who lives into the universe and humans are taking a dialogue with them. Human symbolized such as “Alter Ego” as a name of “God” in Christian Religion or Islam, or called it as “Big Ego” in Buddhism, then humans has been living with a great respect to them just like they are big and great more than humans.


The ability of “Looking Objectively” will be watched as a special ability in my “Story”. Because now humans, as the merits and the demerits of the development of science technology and too much consumption, on the one side we advance to destroy the global environment, on the other side we can reach the initial foray into the universe, then human enter upon a “New Era called Space Age” and are becoming to face with unknown question like “What will you do as a human being now?” In short, in my “Story” I will use this ability of “Looking Objectively” strategically to solve these urgent themes.


For this my purpose, moreover I will bring in this new “Hypothesis” on a chain of my several hypothesizes i have mentioned so far;

        For our humans, the needed condition to evolve as “Post-Human” will be to design “Fluid Furniture” to realize the “Creating New Postures” between 0 gravity and 1 gravity at a stage of the universe. Then the humans can develop “New Culture”. 

Yes, this is a hypothesis that the humans at first needs to design a “Fluid Furniture”, then the humans needs to strengthen “Alter Ego” using by the ability of “Looking Objectively” as much as possible, at last the humans needs to create “New Universal Culture” by “Creating New Postures”, like humans could get a new evolution from the apes with a design of “Chair for the Sitting” on the ground in ancient times.


In the end, we will bring the condition of whales and dolphins they returned to the sea into the universe with 0 gravity, and about “Something the ancestors of whales and dolphins could notice in their life on the earth” we will move its stage to the universe and we will try to solve it there. The solution of its “Something” will be fulfilled as a “Task we will challenge into the Universe”.

        Pakicetus and Ambulocetus returned back to the “Sea”, but our human trust its hope to the “Universe”.

For this work, I try to find a “Way for Space Culture Development as a New Type” that has never been conceived. Then I will practice its way as I am a test subject for it. Because I think that if we bring only today’s earth culture to the universe we should lost our “Tomorrow for Human Beings”.

3 New Furniture


 And, as a greedy human being, the result of such development will be used as a “Gift from the Universe” immediately on this earth before immigrating to the universe. For example, now, as a ground version of “Fluid Furniture”, it is assumed that “Strange Furniture that has never existed, such as being a Chair and also a Bed” appeared. At that time, if 10 years or 20 years ago people just feel a sense of incongruity, if for some reason this furniture feels more comfortable than an existing chair or bed, what kind of situation has happened in our world? It is an important “One Sign” for changes in human senses?


In other words, the people are now beginning to seek “Creation of a New Posture between <Stand> and <Sitting>, also <Sitting> and <Lying>“. For that reason, “New Furniture” that enables the new posture is needed, and maybe we are beginning to seek a more delicate, smoother and more amicable design between the chair and the bed?

Because, each time when I come to a furniture section in a department store I have a question like that how long the shape of a chair and a bed are fixed as the same before 100 years? Then, I have a hope, maybe people have a same hope too, it will be better that almost one completely fantastic furniture that I have never seen before will appear, because people’s senses and desires could change very much in our time.


 Gently I would like to see the new furniture. Because, it was an ancient time, very before, humans could create “Chair for the Sitting”. If “Talismanic Fluid Furniture, as a chair and same time as a bed” will appear and if people love it, yes, this new furniture will be a great “Gift from the Universe” for us to bring a new era to the earth.

On our ground too, we can build up a new way to realize a new revolution based on the body through such a “Creating Postures”. On one occasion, like Shiro Kuramata, Japanese industrial designer could design a very eccentric chair. Now, like last Kuramata, we have a becoming time to start to seek “Talismanic Furniture” as a new type actively? Even so, as a demand of a new era, we would like to seek an appearance of “New Furniture” not only for “Release from the Gravity” which Kuramata has dreamed but also for “Creating Postures between 0 gravity and 1 gravity” with a wide field of the vision for the improvement of earth environment and the cultural space development.

4 Why Humans made choice of Bipedalism?


 We have one hypothesis that humans could free the front feet through the bipedalism and they could hold the objects by the front feet. And they could change the structure of a “Thumb” to improve its efficiency, so they could hold the objects perfectly. At last, they could develop the front feet as a “Perfect Hand”. Yes, sure, if humans couldn’t develop such a “Skillful Thumb”, probably they couldn’t design a high-degree “Chair for the Sitting”.

And, It seems that human’s movement includes not only the necessity of survival such as food security and danger avoidance but also a certain kind of unique “Over-Expectation” different from other animals influenced by the ability of “Looking Objectively”. This “Over-Expectation” will eventually go beyond living according to human’s instincts and create a diverse “Culture of Movement” in the human’s world, including sports and arts.


 Why humans enjoy “Movements”? Its reason is simple, because the movement itself is interesting for us. It is clear when we see the daily human’s behaviors including several sports and dances in the world. Like a short-distance race, why humans would like to run as much as fast? Why we will be proud of its record to other people? Or, conversely, we will try to walk with a super-slow. Or, we will give points to a beauty of the movement and compete with it each other. Or, we will compete with a craftsmanship. Or, we will loose a balance purposely and enjoy it. In deed, both adult and child, our humans could create a lot of various forms of the movements and enjoy it with several reasons.


But, why the movement is so interesting? If we think about its reason again we understand that we don’t know its reason exactly. I wonder maybe some today’s brain scientist will give the answer to us like “I know its reason, because a lot of dopamine will be secreted in the brain through the movement”. But this answer is not fine, this brain scientist avoids giving a clear answer by changing the point slightly. Because we should ask like “Why a lot of dopamine will be secreted through the movement?” So, I tried to imagine about its reason as a Butoh-Space Dance Choreographer.

         I think about its reason like that one movement invites other movements naturally as I found in my dance. I feel that a pleasure which I can find in one movement don’t close into this movement, the movement seeks other movements just like one invisible rule works there.

Its chain of the movements keeps the endless options. And over one memory corresponds to one movement. So, we can reproduce various memorial worlds by the combination of the various movements.


I think this is its essential reason why the movements are so interesting for our humans. Because “Follow-up Memories” is one of the universal desires of us. If we can seek “Follow-up Memories” through the movements with a whole body, not only into the brain, more amicably, and more vastly, sure everybody will devote to the movement world. Also, children too, if they can try to do such an experience as a game, sure they will devote it.

 And, at the moment when we find one event like “Movements which we can’t recognize it as Human’s Movements” are mixed together into our usual movements, everybody will be stricken with a “Nostalgia” that we can’t express it through a language. Then, we will be surprised at its secret and we recognize that “Unknown Stage” exists behind our usual human movements. Me too, several time I experience the moment that I feel this my movement will be not by humans. In that time I am so happy specially. Why? I don’t know its reason exactly, but sure.


Our humans keep all memories of animal’s movements depend on the structure of the skeleton and our brain preserves the memories. Human’s brain is organized with 3 layers of a brain of the Reptiles, a brain of Old-Mammalia, and a brain of New-Mammalia. So, humans can judge the difference between human’s movement by the bipedalism and other animal’s movements.

Humans of a time who lived in a cave, at very wide fields on the earth, they could develop to draw many pictures of “Humans with an Animal Face” at the walls of the caves. Because humans could keep a special familiarity with the animals, so the behavior of the drawing picture of “Human with an Animal Face” must have been like some important cultural ceremony.


In my body movements and into my brain, I feel, sure, various animal’s memories should be left. When I get it I am so happy with a feeling of strong nostalgia. I will make my efforts to create several new dance movements sifting by the joints of the body for seeking its pleasure more. Why the dancers will try to make a “Strange Movements”? I think they have a same aim. Their judgments will be focused on one point, how to spread their seeking sensations by their movements? In that time they will get what kind of emotions? I know these works should be their one of secret pleasures.

It will be very interesting for the dancers to try to recall the history of the evolutions of Fish, Amphibian, Quadruped Animal, Bird, and Monkey through the combinations of the movements, not only to recall the history of human beings. With a well-keened sense, we can reconstruct the movements of Fish, Amphibian, Quadruped Animal, Bird, and Monkey by remembering its memory from “Pool of the Movements” in our brains.


But, why we try to do it? What kind of meanings we can find out through such a recalling the history of the evolution? Each time I put a question to me, one my internal animal whisper something to me. During I have heard its whispers long time, I could understand about its reason like that “If we can’t belong to the life history of the evolution well, we can’t develop our evolution well”. Because I feel that we can get more flesh “Next Humans Movement” as much as we can recall the history of the evolution well as a return from the past.


Therefore, such an “Excellent Dancer” should be a dancer who can realize this return with wide amplitude of vibration. “Excellent Dancer”, they create the unknown beautiful movement’s world which anybody don’t see before, and same time they will be a very familiar existence in front of the audiences. So, we can understand well that something the audiences want towards them will be not only the superiority or inferiority of their dance techniques. What is “Excellent Dancer” with wide amplitude of vibration? Sure, they invite the audiences to the unexpected movement’s world and they recall other animal’s figures through their dances, finally they wake up a strong nostalgia in the audience’s minds.


When human being could get the bipedalism successfully first time, what kind of emotion that first person experienced in his standing up and in his walking? Its emotions are same or different from today’s astronauts who could succeed their first Moon Walking on the moon?

Human’s movements keep the massive amount of memories not only the memories at the time humans started the bipedalism but also many memories of the animals, and every day they organize their each behaviors by selecting such movements variously and unconsciously. In this concerns, each time something happen, humans feel “Nostalgia” without a reason and bring up the systems of “Beauty” also “Prayer” secretly based on “Nostalgia”. And its ideas will be useful for making up each person’s “Originalities” that will be different from each other before we know it. “Originalities” will be made up not only through the intelligent difference like the thought but also through this kind of difference like the unconscious selection of the behaviors.


I would like to get a taste of the pleasure when humans could get the bipedalism successfully first time. And, when they started to walk on the ground freely what kind of troubles they experienced? I would like to ruminate their experiences. Maybe, for only one step, they must be needed so many unbelievable troubles and they could get several new discoveries. If I can know that, it is possible to perceive more sensibly what is lost things by the person living in the present age, and what progresses are made.

         In front of me, one disabled person is walking very slowly while he takes a rest many times. What its figure inspires my heart! He uses all muscles of his body desperately only for one step, and he twists his neck hardly, he flares his both eyes, he opens his both hands and throw it in the sky, finally he is smiling from ear to ear just like he can climb up a big mountain through his only one step.

For me, this kind of walking by a disabled person will be a dance itself and it will be a wonderful example to express “Miracle of Bipedalism”. Its walking takes the imagination to us about the time when human could start the bipedalism. Me too, as a Butoh-Space Dance Choreographer, I would like to start my dance by this kind of walking. I think this is our human’s existence, at the moment when we touch “The Whole of the Movements that we forgot” we will be stricken with a deep impression unconsciously still now.

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